- The Early Discovery Of Hemp & Its Medicinal Benefits
- Executive Program?
- Drug War Leads To The Demise Of Hemp
- U S Hemp History
- Dates To Remember In Nebraskas Hemp History
- Which Cbd Is Right For You?
That term and the accompanying campaign would stick for the next 30 plus years, sweeping cannabis and hemp into one highly negative category in its wake. In 1970 Nixon signed the Controlled Substances Act into law, designating cannabis as a Schedule 1 drug, classifying it as a substance equivalent to LSD and declaring that it had no value for medical use. We already have a guide on how CBD is typically extracted, CBD Sprays but we’ll provide a quick breakdown here. If you’re growing hemp for CBD, do keep the extraction process in mind after you’ve harvested your buds. If you grow the hemp for CBD but outsource for the extraction process, do make sure that the company uses a verified extraction method as well as a safe solvent. In addition, how far apart the seeds are when planted will determine the quality of the fiber.
The organizations go on to assert that despite the state attorney general’s opinion, current state law classifies products with more than 0.3% total THC as “unlawful,” but not controlled substances. The total production of hemp fiber in the United States in 1933 decreased to around 500 tons per year. Cultivation of hemp began to increase in 1934 and 1935, but production remained low compared with other fibers. While multicropping will be one area of focus for advancement, Kostuik also sees hemp breeding efforts moving toward honing in on specific properties that are ideal for different industries. That could include grain varieties with better fatty acid profiles; fiber varieties with more hurd or longer bast; or cannabinoid varieties with niche terpenes.
The IOM concluded that cannabis is a safe and effective medicine, patients should have access, and the government should expand avenues for research and drug development. The federal government completely ignored its findings and refused to act on its recommendations. The underhanded manner in which this tax was enacted led to charges of Government/Corporation corruption and collusion.
6385 act was drafted by Harry Anslinger and introduced by Rep. Robert L. Doughton of North Carolina, on April 14, 1937. The Seventy-fifth United States Congress held hearings on April 27, 28, 29th, 30th, and May 4, 1937. The Act is now commonly referred to, using the modern spelling, as the 1937 Marijuana Tax Act. This act was overturned in 1969 in Leary v. United States, and was repealed by Congress the next year. Over the last several years, Creso Pharma has developed a suite of CBD products underpinned by best-in-class intellectual property.
Since cannabis landed on the list, that meant hemp was treated the same as marijuana. In fact, King Henry VIII of England fined farmers who didn’t cultivate the crop. It was imperative that our ancestors brought hemp along with them on their journey overseas.
This piece covers Cannabidiolic Acid, often known as CBDA, and its relationship to the better known CBD, the hemp plant, and human wellness. Learn how hemp terpenes and the Entourage Effect can deliver a full range of benefits for your health and wellbeing. In 1898 researchers Dunstan and Henry managed to isolate a cannabinoid within hemp oil, but it would be almost a hundred years before the true value of full-spectrum hemp oil would be discovered. https://www.youtube.com/embed/vfeZKBOe7CA
The Farm Bill legally separates hemp from marijuana and legalizes the cultivation of industrial hemp, defining industrial hemp as cannabis sativa L. During this period, farmers were mandated by law to grow hemp in the North American colonies to help with textile production, paper production, and hemp oil, among other products being made from hemp at the time. Large scale farming of hemp was, in fact, a considerable part of what built the United States of America, alongside cotton.
CBD is said to relieve anxiety, reduce stress, numb or reduce pain, and essentially do everything except get you high like THC would. Hemp has been used by humans throughout thousands of years, though it’s been prohibited in the modern world. Growing, possession, and use of the plant was outlawed in 1937 in the United States, with the rest of the civilized world following suit during the years that followed. There are still countries scattered throughout Asia and Europe that continued to cultivate industrial hemp, and that’s the plant that we’re most familiar with even today. The beginning of the 20th century marked the turning point in the history of hemp. By 1915 in Utah, hemp had been outlawed due to prejudice against Mexican immigrants and their long history of use of the plant.
Jean Talon at the order of France Quebec colony minister, confiscated all thread the colonist possessed and forced them to buy it back from him with hemp. Both hemp and marijuana have well over 750 active components that are being used for various nutritional & medical benefits. Cannabis was praised in ancient Japan for the strength of its fibers and the tallness of the plant itself, and it also has spiritual significance in ancient Shintoism, the indigenous religion of the nation. Cannabis was revered for its cleansing abilities and was also used to ward off evil spirits. LikeHigh Falls Hemp’s products, which are all grown in the Hudson Valley, Hemp has a long, long history of being grown in the United States, and it has a much, much longer history around the world. The program combines the core curriculum from each major with the prerequisites and elective courses to provide the most dynamic education on the market.
Manitoba Harvest is proud to be a hemp company that works with the FDA to pave the way for hemp’s bright future. It’s hard to think of another plant that has played such a versatile and multifaceted role in human history. Hemp cultivation stretches back to the very dawn of human civilization, providing one of our earliest sources of textiles and paper, not to mention medicine, food and building materials. Cheap imported fibers, particularly jute – a weaker fiber with no resistance to rot, but suitable for common twine and cotton bagging- cut into the hemp market.
The Early Discovery Of Hemp & Its Medicinal Benefits
Although the 2018 Farm Bill opened the door for many U.S. farmers to grow and sell the crop, Pennsylvania’s hemp industry has struggled to see year-over-year growth. As a company engaged in the production and wholesale of hemp series products for many years, HEMPLANE has been committed to providing the best hemp protein to customers around the world. Our production area has a stable output and strict quality control. We provide organic and conventional hemp protein for our customers to purchase. At the same time, our hemp protein has passed some common quality certifications.
This has opened up the hemp industry to domestic production and the expansion of hemp-based products in the U.S. It’s hard not to browse a feed, turn on the television, or read a magazine without coming across news about CBD. While hemp-based products are soaring with popularity, using them was taboo just a couple of years ago. For over a century, hemp was outlawed throughout the United States.
The history of hemp is intimately related to the history of cannabis, as both plants are derived from the same subspecies Cannabis Sativa and share many of the same qualities. Hemp cultivation dates back to the beginnings of recorded history. Cannabis originated on the steppes of Central Asia and was first cultivated by the Chinese. Its first use was as food for humans and animals in China and India.
In 1970, the Controlled Substance Act totally banned hemp farming in the U.S. because hemp was classified as a Schedule 1 drug alongside L.S.D. and heroin. The law was maintained even after it sparked outrage from hemp farmers and supporters all over the country. Moreover, the federal government’s increased efforts against drugs led to The Marihuana Tax Act of 1937, which placed heavy taxes on the sale of cannabis. Arrests for possession and dealing followed shortly after, with convictions for violating the Tax Act.
As our ancestors migrated west, they brought hemp along with them. The plant was used by our ancestors to make shelter, sails, food, and eventually, medicine. It includes some information specific to Indiana, but the content has broad applicability throughout the Midwest and beyond. From then on tinctures that included cannabis became common, and it’s even rumored that Queen Victoria herself used a tincture to reduce pain from menstrual cramps!
With more than 60,000 uses, hemp has the ability to support humankind on almost every level. Here is a look at the fascinating delta thc 8 vs 9 — and oftentimes rocky — history of hemp. Legalizing the growing of industrial hemp starts to happen on the state level.
When Congress passed the Marijuana Tax Act in 1937, the decline of hemp effectively began. The tax and licensing regulations of the act made hemp cultivation nearly impossible for American farmers. Anslinger, the chief promoter of the Tax Act, argued for anti-marijuana legislation around the world. The passing of the 2018 Farm Bill and federal legalization of hemp not only marks an important day in US history, but an important day in Manitoba Harvest history. It is a significant step in increasing access to all the unique and powerful benefits of hemp.
He also reported that a tincture of hemp and alcohol taken orally was found an effective analgesic. Hemp has been mentioned in many important documents over its recorded history. The Zend-Avesta, a sacred book used by the peoples of India dating back to 600 BC, spoke of hemp. Using topical CBD products helps me calm down, stress less, and stay in the moment rather than getting trapped in anxiety loops.
1986 President Reagan signed the Anti-Drug Abuse Act, reinstating mandatory minimums and raising federal penalties for possession and distribution and officially begins the U.S. Scythians cultivate cannabis and use it to weave fine hemp cloth. The colonists were not eager to grow hemp, but England wanted hemp, and cultivation was deemed mandatory. The Puritans at Jamestown grew hemp, as part of their contract with the Virginia Company.
In the later research, lab tests showed that cannabigerolic acid and cannabidiolic acid prevented infection of human epithelial cells by the coronavirus spike protein and prevented entry of SARS-CoV-2 into cells. Van Breemen, Ruth Muchiri of the College of Pharmacy and Linus Pauling Institute and five scientists from OHSU identified the two cannabinoid acids via a mass spectrometry-based screening technique invented in van Breemen’s laboratory. Van Breemen’s team screened a range of botanicals used as dietary supplements including red clover, wild yam, hops and three species of licorice.
Some years later, Queen Elizabeth I imposed a £5 fine for any eligible landowner who failed to comply. Being a strategic raw commodity, hemp became crucial to England’s dominant economy and navy. This thriving economy sped up the exploration and colonization of the Americas. Over the next 7,000 years, Ancient China used hemp for food, medicine, and textile – promoting the civilization of ancient Chinese empires. Its use also spread to other Asian regions such as Mongolia and India.
Drug War Leads To The Demise Of Hemp
In fact, hemp was used for money in most of the Americas from 1631 until the early 1800s, and the original drafts of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution were written on hemp paper. However, 1970’s Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act declared a zero tolerance policy on any type of THC, making hemp essentially illegal. The plant is still trying to reclaim its image, with many still associating the plant with marijuana’s highs while ignoring its ancient history, durability, and health benefits.
In 1998, the very state that closed the door on hemp was the first to reopen it. This gesture would open the door for hemp legalization a crack and therefore one of the best things to happen in the history of hemp. At the beginning of the 20th century, the New World experienced a cultural shift.
Census of Agriculture listed Nebraska in third place nationally in the production of industrial hemp, just behind Kentucky and Illinois and ahead of California. According to the census, 683 acres were under production in Nebraska in 1899. Illinois had 723 acres, and California reported 500 acres of hemp. Same plant species, but hemp, which is nonintoxicating, contains 0.3% or less of the psychoactive ingredient tetrahydrocannabinol in marijuana.
The Vikings adopt the use and cultivation of hemp paper and carry that technology to Iceland. As hemp has made its way around the world throughout the course of human history, its utility and ease of cultivation have remained unchanged. Instead, it’s been public perception and government regulations that caused its periodic disfavor. Many companies are taking advantage of the ban lift on hemp and growing interest in CBD products from consumers. CBD products are popping up in everything from supplements to cosmetics to pet treats.
U S Hemp History
Producers turned most of the hemp harvested in 2018 and 2019 into CBD oil or hemp extract, the hyper-popular supplement with numerous benefits. In addition, individual states continue to pass laws facilitating hemp growing and the production and sales of CBD supplements within their borders. After almost 30 years of being forbidden, the U.S. allowed businesses toimport dietary hemp products in 2004. In the new century, application of hemp started to diversify as artisans and small businesses imported hemp fiber for clothing and textiles.
From the leaves and stalks it is now possible to make over 20,000 types of products from medicine to houses to cellophane to dynamite. In 2000 BC hemp was so important to ancient China that it was considered one of the ‘5 grains’, 5 cultivated crops that were thought to be sacred. There were many uses for hemp such as oil or fuel, cloth, and building materials. It was imported to Japan and is still used to this day to dress Buddhist monks and sumo wrestlers.
The following shares more on the storied history of hemp, as well as the sustainability of hemp in the modern age. For more information about hemp and Cannabidiol products, contact the trusted experts at Canna Elixirs. It is believed that hemp made it to Europe in approximately 1,200 BC. China appears to have the longest continuous history of Hemp cultivation . France has cultivated Hemp for at least 700 years to the present day, Spain and Chile similarly.
Kentucky was one of the early adopters — pair that with our ideal soil and climate, and you see Kentucky is now a national leader in growing and creating hemp products. Hemp experienced a slight resurgence during World War II, when the US Government recognized hemp was needed to support the war and briefly lifted enforcement of the Marihuana Tax Act. The Department of Agriculture where to buy hemp oil cbd during the time even actively promoted hemp and encouraged farmers throughout the Midwest and Southwest to grow hemp. American farmers are required by law to grow hemp as a staple crop, with many of America’s founding fathers advocating for its benefits. It’s the single plant that can feed us, clothe us, house us, protect the environment and support human health.
“It provides a solution to so many pressing challenges—sustainable, affordable housing, rehab of urban homes, employment for people with disabilities, a market for hemp farmers to sell their products,” Powers said in an email. Meanwhile, the PDA awarded Project Hemp Home, in conjunction with DON Enterprises’ Hemp Test Acres program, two grants totaling $86,450. “There was a lot of harvested hemp flower from 2019 that was never sold,” Powers cbd oil when trying to conceive said in an email. While the state’s industry has experienced growing pains akin to those taking shape across the U.S., new markets for industrial hemp are starting to take form in Pennsylvania thanks to the PDA’s targeted efforts. To use an example, it might help to think of cannabis and hemp categorizations in terms of whiskey. Whiskey encompasses a variety of liquors, such as bourbon and scotch, all of which are considered whiskeys.
Therapists still have unmanageable waiting lists and public services are overwhelmed. Not to mention that it may take years for mental health research and analysis to be completed and action to be taken. In the meantime, it’s imperative to identify small measures we can take to feel a bit less anxious in our daily cbd öl auf was achten lives. Hemp may actually be one of the oldest plants cultivated by humans, and it may have first been cultivated as early as 50,000 years ago. The 1850 U.S. census documented approximately 8,400 hemp plantations of at least 2000 acres. Strains in cultivation included China hemp, Smyrna hemp and Japanese hemp.
The Delta CUP-5 is designed to address the specific needs of small-scale cannabis processing facilities, prototype labs and education research labs. It combines closed-loop cold alcohol extraction technology with mechanical centrifugation, ensuring a high-purity end product. Hemp certification programs help consumers make sense of a marketplace, but not all are created equally.
Britain kept laying more restrictions on America with each passing deal. Eventually, the country withheld about 80% of Russia’s hemp from the Americas. Following the 1807 Treaties of Tilsit, the French and Russian Empires agreed to transform from enemies comment fumer du cbd liquide to partners. The twosome used their influence to convince other countries to cut ties with England. During this time, Russia supplied 90% of the hemp used by England’s navy. Russia was looking at a substantial financial loss by ending trade with Britain.
Did you know that humans have used the hemp plant for about 10,000 years? Most importantly, we keep our products as close to the plant as possible, understanding the natural way of raising crops is best for our bodies. At Laura’s Mercantile and Homestead Alternatives, what is pure cbd oil we’ve implemented stringent third-party lab testing procedures to ensure our hemp and CBD products are high quality and reliable. These Kentucky applicants have also been approved to grow 42,086 acres worth of hemp in 2019, compared to only 6,700 acres grown in 2018.
Dates To Remember In Nebraskas Hemp History
Hemp isn’t the only thing growing exponentially — its primary derivative, CBD, is also experiencing a boom. The volume and variety of CBD products has risen quickly over the past five years, with tinctures, oils, lotions, capsules, and topical creams now on the market. The U.S. Government approves a synthetic form of cannabis for the pharmaceutical industry. Marinol, made with a synthetic form of THC, is approved by the government as a legal drug to treat nausea and vomiting in cancer, HIV/AIDS, and anorexia patients. To this day, Marinol brings in more than $150 million in annual sales for the pharmaceutical industry in the United States.
Pollen from hops, however, is always from a wild plant, for only the female plants were cultivated and not the pollinating males. Wild hops can also be a proof of human influence on nature, for the plant spread with people. However, one cannot build a comprehensive picture of hemp’s early history in Finland solely on the grounds of pollen analysis. These new research methods are changing opinions on the history of hemp cultivation in Finland. According to current opinion, hemp cultivation reached Finland from Russia approximately in the 14th century.
During the war, U.S. farmers grew about a million acres of hemp across the Midwest as part of that program. While the 2018 Farm Bill legalized hemp, other challenges remain for the new U.S. hemp industry. USDA regulations suggest the Drug Enforcement Administration wants to retain control over many aspects of the industry. The CBD industry awaits regulation from the Food and Drug Administration. Banking, credit card processors, and tech companies often refuse to work with hemp companies. At the same time, more farmers, entrepreneurs, and consumers are interested in hemp than ever before.
Which Cbd Is Right For You?
A little too late, perhaps, but the magazine Popular Mechanics published a significant article about the more than 20,000 products that hemp could be used for. A few short years later, Henry Ford also debuted a vehicle with body parts made out of hemp, which was calculated to be far stronger than the same steel of the auto parts made at the time. Fabric for clothing, boat sails, agricultural sacks, and rope were regularly products made from hemp, among many others.
This requires the certification to have relationships not only within the hemp industry, but also with other industry stakeholders including academics, various regulators, and regulatory bodies. These relationships are the critical groundwork for standardized manufacturing, labeling, and quality requirements. If a certification program is not regularly updating its requirements for certification, it can’t accurately monitor for safety. These programs help everyone in the industry and are supported by certifications intending to better the entire hemp industry.
As Hemps Home on the Internet Since 1998 we aim to educate and promote industrial hemp globally. ” and bring industrial hemp, hemp education, CBD, hemp resources, and hemp products to the people and sustainability to the planet. In 1964, scientists defined themolecular structuresof both THC and CBD. It was in those moments that the differences between hemp and marijuana started to become clear.
Hemp would continue to be a top cash crop in America for the next 150 years. Hemp (Cannabis Sativa L.) has a long, rich history that spans at least 10,000 years. While archeologists have found hemp fabrics dated at roughly 8,000 BCE, as centuries and millennia have passed, hemp has found uses in more than 25,000 different products. It has also been a subject of controversy and prohibition in recent centuries.
Though we can’t go back in time and rewrite hemp’s history, we can take action now to ensure a better future for one of the most versatile natural resources on earth. A court case between the Hemp Industries Association and the DEA permanently protects the sales of seed-based hemp foods and personal care products in the U.S. From 2017 to 2018 the number of licensed acres of hemp jumped 204% across the U.S., according to Vote Hemp. As its popularity as a health aide skyrockets, the market for the hemp-derived extract called cannabidiol, or CBD, is expected to grow from $618 million in 2018 to $22 billion in 2022.
Newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst realized cheap, sustainable, and easily-grown hemp threatened his extensive timber holdings. Mellon, Secretary of the Treasury and the wealthiest man in the US, invested heavily in the Du Pont family’s new synthetic fiber, nylon, to compete with hemp. Dewey and Merrill believed hemp hurds were a sustainable source for paper production. The concentration of cellulose in hemp hurds is generally around 35%. Manufacture of paper — on equipment designed to use wood-pulp — with hemp as a raw material shows hemp lacks the qualities needed to become a major competitor to the traditional paper industry.
Much like in the U.S., Canada’s fiber industry is still under development. Plus, genetics that have potential to yield fiber and grain have been tall, Kostuik says, which is ideal for fiber production but makes the grain portion difficult to reach with traditional equipment. Despite the industry’s struggles over the years, the PDA continues to find ways to support farmers and create a market for the crop. Chart Design by Andrea VegasBased on data compiled by the PDA, in 2019, the state issued 324 hemp growing permits and recorded 4,195 acres planted. Pennsylvania farmers’ first year of commercial growing came in 2019, following the passage of the 2018 Farm Bill, which legalized hemp at the federal level.
When the male plants were pulled out of the ground, two weeks before the females and treated separately, a finer fiber was obtained from the males. In this way, Eastern Finns substituted the need for thinner fibers and finer fabrics from hemp instead of using flax. In Western Finland all hemp plants were pulled up at the same time, discarding the dry and hardened males. If you don’t have a degree in agronomy or familiarity with technical agricultural terminology then this book may be a difficult read, but it contains a factual case studies of hemp farming in Europe along the lines of a white paper. Published in 1999 by Food Products Press, Advances in Hemp Research is an imprint of The Haworth Press, Inc.
“Make the most of the Indian Hemp Seed, sow it everywhere” George Washington 1794. Hemp production didn’t wane until after the industrial revolution where petroleum products were being developed and other fibres were being processed mechanically. The U.S. government releases a pro-hemp documentary called Hemp for Victory, encouraging farmers to grow hemp to support the war. The U.S. Department of Agriculture promotes hemp and publishes articles sharing its benefits, leading to over 400,000 acres of hemp planted throughout the Midwest and Southeast. Shortly after this program, the U.S. government went back to its original stance on hemp again and the industry continued to decline.
This was followed by the passage of similar initiatives in Alaska, Colorado, Maine, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Washington D.C., Hawaii, Maryland, New Mexico, Rhode Island, and Vermont. By the early 20th century, industrialization lead to inventions of machines that would do the work of many. One of the most important inventions to the hemp industry was the Decorticator machine. It was hailed as the invention to revolutionize the hemp industry. An article from Popular Mechanics magazine spoke of hemp as a cash crop soon to be worth a billion dollars.
“They produce structural and non-structural (i.e., insulation, plaster, etc.) construction elements, which they are using to build a guest house that will be part of an agritourism destination on their farm.” The PDA has also funded several initiatives and projects that advance the industrial side of hemp beyond cannabinoids. Strathmeyer says a big reason for that is to steer away from the CBD conversation. In addition to providing feedback to the USDA, Strathmeyer and the PDA also helped form the PA Hemp Steering Committee in 2017, which is a team of industry stakeholders dedicated to researching hemp’s uses and benefits.
Hemp paper was used for maps, logs, and even for the Bibles that sailors may have brought on board. In the 1800s, Kentucky was the indisputable hemp production champion. Those Illinois farmers would prove to be crucial in the growth of the hemp industry in Nebraska only a few years later. Recognized for its medicinal properties, hemp also served as a source of food as well as fiber for clothing and paper throughout the globe. THC-free marijuana and hemp plants are growing with popularity across the country. Used primarily as over-the-counter medicinal products, they can provide a variety of effects to the individual.
The CBD industry alone is ripe for the taking, and businesses that get in on the ground floor are guaranteed the most success. Staying knowledgeable about the history of hemp and how the plant is grown is integral to that success. During the period from 1937 to the late 60s, the U.S. government understood and acknowledged that industrial hemp and marijuana were distinct varieties of the Cannabis plant. Hemp was no longer officially recognized as distinct from marijuana after the passage of the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. In 1942, during World War II, the government reversed its stance on the crop in an effort to support the war. The Department of Agriculture released several hemp publications and documentaries that highlighted how the production of hemp could help support the war.
Several religious documents ranging from Hinduism to ancient Persian religions also mention hemp as a “Sacred Grass” or “King of Seeds”. Throughout generations, hemp was a key ingredient in everyday life, as it was used to daily essentials such as clothes, shoes, ropes, and paper. Plant-based protein—Dietary protein can come from many different sources. However, for vegans and vegetarians, whey and other animal-based protein products aren’t an option. An average 30-gram serving of hemp protein powder contains around 120 calories and grams of protein, depending on the brand.
In America, homespun hemp —called “Kentucky jeans”–was commonly used to clothe the slave population and soldiers of the era. Both President George Washington and President Thomas Jefferson were advocates of hemp as a valuable cash crop. Many slaves died of pneumonia contracted from working in the hemp pools in the winter, and the loss of life became so great among hemp hands that the increase in value of the hemp did not equal the loss in slaves. Many of the planters prepared large pools and water-retted the hemp they produced. While it’s not as cost-effective as CO2 extraction, the ethanol extraction process allows you to produce a full-spectrum, potent CBD extract at a very high volume.
So, it would not be sold in retail stores or to kids, but rather sold like marijuana is sold in adult-use dispensary. Since then, we have been working across the country to promote legalized and regulated products in all 50 states. We now have all 50 with legal hemp after Idaho finally came aboard last year. Now, our focus is on the product side and making sure that popular products like CBD can be sold, but also that they fairly regulated to ensure the products are safe for consumers. Still, others are more well-meaning and rigorous but approach their standards strictly from a dietary supplement point of view, with little knowledge of the hemp plant and its innumerous benefits. The release also encourages shops across the state that are currently selling delta-8 products to ensure the products comply with the state’s total THC limit and to keep any paperwork that validates where their products were sourced from.
Not only does this waste your profits, but it greatly limits the uses left for your infested hemp product. Industrial hemp is composed of fiber, oilseed, and/or hybrid plants, which serve a dual purpose but not as well as single purpose plants can. As there are said to be 25,000 uses of hemp, there are many ways to grow it for a variety of different end results.
Hemp twine was knit into fishing nets and sacks, and it was also good material for making sails. Paleoecological research is reshaping the entire history of settlements and agriculture in Finland. A new assessment considering the whole country in this matter has yet to be done, even though a lot of local pilot studies have already begun.